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One of the critical documents often exchanged between parties in the early stages of a negotiation is a Letter of Intent (LOI) or Memorandum of Understanding (MOU).

While an LOI can serve as a critical tool to establish mutual understanding and set the stage for a future relationship, a common question arises: Is a Letter of Intent legally binding? 

Let’s unravel the complexities and suggest when a Letter of Intent is legally enforceable.

What is a Letter of Intent?

A Letter of Intent is a formal document outlining the fundamental terms and conditions under which two parties agree to work together toward a specific goal.

These goals could range from a business transaction to a partnership or even a merger.

Non-binding vs. binding Letter of Intent

Non-binding Letter of Intent

In most instances, LOIs serve as non-binding documents to provide a blueprint for future negotiations.

They often include language that specifies the non-binding nature of the document, stating explicitly that neither party is obliged to proceed unless a formal, binding agreement is later agreed.

Binding Letter of Intent

Contrary to the norm, some LOIs include clauses designed to be legally binding. These relate to confidentiality (sometimes formalised as a separate Non-Disclosure Agreement (NDA)), exclusivity, or timelines for future negotiations.

Clauses should be explicitly flagged as binding terms to avoid ambiguity. In some cases, a separate NDA might be used in conjunction with the LOI to add a layer of confidentiality and legal obligation.

Key considerations for drafting a Letter of Intent

Clarity in wording

Being explicit about which parts of the LOI are binding and which are not can prevent potential legal issues. Vague or ambiguous language could make the document subject to varying interpretations, which may lead to disputes.

Given the potential for enforceable terms, it’s prudent for all parties to consult with legal advisors or use a legal document template from a reputable source during the drafting and reviewing process of an LOI.

Jurisdictional concerns

The laws concerning the enforceability of LOIs can differ depending on jurisdiction. Always specify which jurisdiction will govern the LOI and any subsequent contracts.

Letter of Intent in the United Kingdom (UK)

In the UK, whether an LOI is binding largely depends on the intent of the parties and the language used in the document. Generally, LOIs are treated as non-binding, but any clauses clearly stating intent to be legally bound will be enforceable.

Hong Kong (HK)

Similar to the UK, Hong Kong laws evaluate the binding nature of an LOI based on its wording and the intent of the parties involved. Explicit language indicating that the LOI is intended to be legally binding can make specific clauses enforceable.

Singapore (SG)

In Singapore, LOIs are usually considered non-binding unless clear language indicates otherwise. Specific binding clauses, such as those related to confidentiality, should be clearly defined.


Australian law generally treats LOIs as non-binding. However, if there is evidence that the parties intended for the LOI to be legally binding, Australian courts could enforce it.

New Zealand (NZ)

New Zealand follows a similar approach as the jurisdictions above. The enforceability of an LOI depends on the wording and the parties’ intention. Specific clauses may be binding if clearly stated.

Whether a Letter of Intent is legally binding is not straightforward and relies on various factors, including its content, wording, and jurisdiction.

While generally seen as a non-binding blueprint for future negotiations, certain conditions within the LOI could be legally binding if explicitly stated. Thus, it’s crucial to approach the drafting and signing an LOI with due diligence and, preferably, legal advice.

If you’re negotiating a contract or entering into a new business venture, understanding the nuances of a Letter of Intent can save you from potential legal pitfalls. 

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